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Innovative behavior consists of accepting purpose prescribed by society but not social rules. Thus the process of innovation always stumbles against the established order, supposes a rupture, forces a deviant behavior without it, it cannot be conceived. This ordinary act represents the main vector of the movement as well as a risk of sanctions. It is considered normal behavior for some, so it remains relative. It has benefits, requires learning and builds an identity. Innovation is the daily reality of any operator. Examining their networks provides an essential diagnostic tool made available to organizations.
In a historical perspective, different sources constitute the corpus that questions the two concepts mentioned. To understand the choices of the decision-makers and the choices of actors carrying new sports practices, we studied mostly three types of sources.
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The local edition of Oisans and the Grenoble edition were consulted simultaneously to detect differences in perception between urban and rural. Contrary to what one might think, it is not a source that is insufficient or too centrally localized. It is rich and essential for analysing the network of players. The repeated presence of the same events in the regional press is an indicator of the degree of incorporation of practice into a place.
It is a mouthpiece for decision makers, rooted in the territory. This daily newspaper publishes positive information. It gives to see the official speech. Thus, it participates in the elaboration of the system of representations by shedding light on the place of practices, traditional or innovative.
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It puts them back into their life cycle. In the margin of the media discourse, the decisions of the administrations constitute a second level of sources. It is constituted by the funds of the communal archives, essentially the municipal reports and the municipality communities reports of Oisans area. This data is scattered throughout the studied perimeter or in different repositories.
This is why the collection of oral testimonies constitutes a third level of sources. It is a rich teaching tool made available to the contemporary historian. These testimonials reveal how the actors appropriate the practices, act, give meaning to their choice. They offer access to the sphere of intimacy, at the heart of the process of interrelations. It takes into account different generations, the diversity of sports practiced by an individual and his belonging to different sectors of activity. The results of this thesis are presented chronothemically.
In a first part, we show how Oisans is raised in a tourist territory by the activity of skiing. This practise benefits of a positive vision from society. In addition, we highlight the change from summer tourism, with mountaineering using specific locations, to a winter tourism territory that specifies new tourist sites.
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By this transfer, they no longer appear in terms of backwardness. This first section provides an overview of skiing after the war, and in a more in-depth way from the s to the s. Skiing is the major economic resource of Oisans. We describe this practice as innovative at this time because of its change of use from a means of travel to a leisure. In addition, its modalities of practice change. It goes from ski mount to ski downhill. This stage of development indicates the asymmetrical path followed by winter sports.
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It is rationalized, codified, standardized. At the dawn of the s, we are witnessing a reconfiguration of the territory. This architecture brings out new protagonists, ski lift managers, ski instructors, ski patrols.
In contrast to this dynamic, the agricultural places are presented as lagging behind their time. In rural villages that have remained isolated from the phenomenon, the world of peasants disappears despite attempts to resist by associating agriculture with tourism.
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Another conception of the development of the mountain occurs. It challenges the dominant model and promotes the protection of nature. Their vision is that we must overcome the mountain not by mechanics but by physical effort. This dichotomy of representations brings up controversies, conflicts and negotiations illustrated by games between actors around two projects: the implementation of the Meije cable car and the creation of the Ecrins National Park.
Starting from this new social and cultural reality at the dawn of the s, the second and third parts of the thesis focus on understanding territorialization processes of innovative practices. The targeted study of three practices provides a detailed analysis of the dynamics of innovation. Beyond their countercultural specificity, we selected them because of their affiliation with traditional sports that affected to varying degrees the territory of Oisans in the period previously studied.
Snowboarding and its relation to skiing, mountain biking and its relationship with road biking and free flight, and more particularly paragliding and its link with skydiving, are examined. Considering the period of time between the s and the s, the second part deals with the appropriation of the innovative practices by the actors of the territory and the capacity of this one to change them.
They are identified through the different ways of getting involved in the practice. We then measure their degree of influence, their capacity to take risks, their relationship with the current rule. The notion of appropriation refers to the challenges of the territory.
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Relationships with traditional activities are studied to understand how snowboarding, mountain biking and free flying are perceived and whether or not they successfully take place on occupied space. On the other hand, the interest of the actors to take part in the action and the meaning of the different sequences of the appropriation process are detailed.
The finding of differentiated appropriations leads to the establishment of territorial profiles. In order to interpret the trajectory of innovation, special attention is paid to conflicts and cooperation, in particular to the repercussions of national institutional tensions on local authorities of sport. In the light of this, the role of the smuggling agents is highlighted. The tensions identified reflect not only the economic stakes resulting from the development of new sports but also the stakes of power.
The influence of the actors of the territory shapes specificities within each modality of practice, from which are deduced meanings. While snowboarding and mountain biking have a profound impact on the territory at the same time as it shapes them to its profile, free flight illustrates the failure of an appropriation.
Hang gliding and then paragliding face many obstacles related to a protectionism of the winter sports system highlighted by the place of central operators including lift companies. The third part focuses on the most recent period, from the year to the present, and focuses on territoriality resulting from the innovation process.
The influence of snowboarding on skiing, mountain biking on road biking, even mountain biking on the ski, attest to a reversal of codes. This phase corresponds to the integration of these sports and the recognition of other standards. New sports do not reconfigure spaces evenly. Some projects illustrate the refusal of the territorial ecosystem to transform itself.
The consequences on the territory are measured according to various factors, symbolic, organizational, social, cultural, but also according to technological, political criteria and finally in terms of space.
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The changes of representation on the space occur concomitantly with the modifications of the judgments on the actors of the innovative sports. These changes, interpreted through the lens of opportunities and threats, constitute an axis of reflection. Beyond a mutation of the sporting landscape, this thesis finally attempts to measure the consequences of the heterogeneity of perceptions on the heterogeneity of the Oisans area, field of expression of identities.
It takes stock of territorial reconfigurations. The touristic territories remain the big resorts that increase their space and reinforce their brand image. Saint Christophe and La Grave, altitude areas, no longer have the same impact.